= "Are you coming to Verona?" puell ae liber (The girl ’s book). Accusative case is the case used for a noun or pronoun which is the object of a sentence. Subject and the subject complement of a verb are in the nominative case. This is the origin of the Direct Object. The Internal Accusative is any accusative that names or modifies the action of the verb. In a sentence, the accusative is the "what" - in English grammar, this is known as the direct object. Consider: cano nihil = I sing no song = I don't sing. EXERCISE • Lesson 5-Accusative • Give the accusative singular. Examples of Adjectives Agreeing with the Nominative and Accusative Case Bonus, a first and second declension adjective, is masculine, nominative, and singular to agree with puer, the word it is describing. Another example from the classical world: the Latin peto originally meant "I … But notice what happens if we leave off the noun: I sing loud. The accusative case is used for the direct object of transitive verbs, for the internal object (mostly of intransitive verbs), for the subject of a subordinate infinitive (that is, not as the subject of the historical infinitive), to indicate place to which, extent or duration, and for the object of certain prepositions. Prepositions in Latin most often make their nouns take the ablative case. In Latin, the distance covered by an act of motion, or the distance at which something is located or takes place is commonly expressed by the accusative, and, sometimes, by the ablative case. --> The care of the mother drove her . How small does the small island have to be? In English we do not have an accusative case as such; rather, we have the accusative function of the Object Case. Because something happens "to" them, they can't be in nominative. The word in genitive case is the subject. Determine whether the adjective (magnus, bonus..) agrees with the substantives (ager, puella, poeta) in both case (nominative, accusative...), gender (masculine, female and neuter) and number (singular and plural). Take an example: "I'm gonna hit your face." Here, "your face" is the end or the ultimate goal of my hitting and so it goes into the accusative case. The characteristics of an accusative case often entail (such as in Latin) what generally is termed the nominative case. Consider: Bonus, a first and second declension adjective, is masculine, nominative, and singular to agree with puer, the word it is describing. Finally, if the girl isn't good, but rather wild: Even though puella is first declension, ferox remains third declension. Then translate. So, this is a subjective genitive. In the masculine and feminine singular it always ends in -m; (cp. In Classical Latin, a phrase would be given using the noun with the appropriate case … This "adverbial accusative" is almost always an "internal accusative" -- that is, an accusative object that renames the action of the verb, even when it is not in any way a cognate accusative. With the gerund and the gerundive, the preposition ad is used with the accusative to express purpose. It is believed that the accusative case originally had a "local" function; it was the case that indicated the end or ultimate goal of an action or movement. EXERCISE • Lesson 5-Accusative • Give the accusative plural. In the following sentences, identify the accusative and nominative. Canem is accusative because it is the object of amat. accusative to describe movement towards something; ablative to describe the position of something which is static; One of the main differences between medieval Latin and Classical Latin is the increased use of prepositions. Because Latin uses cases to mark the subject and the object of a sentence, word order does not matter. Nota Bene: 'fuisse' and all the forms of it, the past tense of 'esse', behaves exactly like the present tense. 2) it could equally be an extention of the internal accusative: vitam vixit > longam vitam vixit > multos annos vixit. Then translate. Direct object, indirect object or an object of a preposition are in the accusative case. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. EXERCISE • Lesson 5-Accusative • Give the nominative singular. The preposition ab with the ablative is regularly used when the point from which a person or object is separated is not mentioned explicitly. Most other verbs take the 'accusative' case. The words bonus and ferocem become boni and feroces to agree with the plurals pueri and canes. Without a preposition, one finds the supine in the accusative case used after verbs of motion to express purpose. This is the origin of the Direct Object. The basic function of specifying the end of movement means that the Accusative is attached especially to verbs of motion and to prepositions when they refer to motion. Nominative case is known as subjective case. Compare now: Romam eo. This page was last edited on 21 February 2018, at 22:27. classics@osu.edu, Designed and built by ASCTech Web Services, The Phaedon John Kozyris and Litsa Kozyris Travel Award, The Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Greek and Latin, Graduate Interdisciplinary Specialization: Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean, Graduate Program on Classical Antiquity and the Near East, The Miltiadis Marinakis Endowed Professorship of Modern Greek Language and Culture, Honoring the memory of Phaedon J. Kozyris, Visual Resources in the Teaching of Modern Greece, Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse. Latin Examples However, some prepositional phrases require their object to be in the accusative case instead. 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